MISSION AND VISION:
To provide a strong base to pharmaceutical analysis, where students, faculty and staff work collaboratively to expand knowledge in basic subjects and communication skills providing a foundation that is appropriate to their career goals.
The complex tasks of pharmaceutical analysis may also include development of new pharmacopoeia methods, stress testing to validate stability indicating methods, impurity analysis and identification, herbal, or animal material analysis, cleaning validations, degradation tests and stability studies.
Titration is defined as a common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis that is used to determine the unknown concentration of a known reactant. Because volume measurements play a key role in titration, it is also known as volumetric analysis like Acid base titration, precipitation titration, redox titration, complex metric titration.
In the 18th century, the textile industry developed volumetric analysis (titrimetry) as a control tool for figuring out the solutions used in textile bleaching, such as potash, sulfuric acid, and later hypochlorite. Rather than accurately determining concentrations, the initial methods established were more for practical purposes, controlling the “goodness” (titer, in French) of solutions. A method for determining the “goodness” of potash was reported by the Scottish chemist Home in Experiments on Bleaching, 1756. The process involved adding a teaspoonful of nitric acid at a specific dilution (1–6) to one drachm of potash until the effervescence stopped. Potash was deemed unsuitable for bleaching if less than 12 teaspoons of the acid mixture were used. Lewis employed litmus paper in 1767 rather than stopping the effervescence to In the 18th century, the textile industry developed volumetric analysis (titrimetry) as a control tool for figuring out the solutions used in textile bleaching, such as potash, sulfuric acid, and later hypochlorite. show that the response has finished. He used a scale to determine the titrant’s amount. He made absolute determinations by use pure potassium carbonate to estimate the acid titer.
In 1782, Guyton de Morveau conducted the first precipitation titration. Lead nitrate solution was titrated with hydrochloric acid until precipitate production stopped. Around 1788, Descroizilles invented the first redox titration when he employed indigo solution to gauge the strength of sodium hypochlorite solution used to bleach textiles. The titrant’s indigo colour remained constant, indicating the finish point. Although not perfect, this approach worked well for gauging the bleaching solution’s “goodness.” Descroizilles also worked on potash titration improvements. In this article, he described what were likely the earliest versions of the burette, pipette, and volumetric flask and advocated for the use of specifically made laboratory glassware.
These methods include chromatography (liquid and gas) and electrophoresis, molecular and atomic spectroscopy (UV-Visible, IR, NMR, mass spectrometry, atomic absorption and emission).
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires that raw materials are tested before manufacturing pharmaceutical products to establish their identity, purity, and quality. This analysis is an essential step in the production of pharmaceuticals and ensures that the product is suitable for its intended use.
Pharmaceutical analysis methods for biological samples include chromatography, radionuclide labelling, immunological and microbiological methods. The assay method with good specificity and high sensitivity should be selected according to the nature of the test substance. Chromatography includes high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC) and chromatography-mass spectrometry (e.g. LC-MS, LC-MS/MS, GC-MS, GC-MS/MS methods).
In situations where simultaneous determination of multiple compounds in biological samples is required, LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS have additional advantages in terms of specificity, sensitivity, and speed of analysis.